# NumPy vs JAX: Optimizing Performance and Functionality

## A beginner's guide and comparison of NumPy and JAX for scientific computing and machine learning # Introduction

Numpy and Jax are both Python libraries that are widely used in numerical computing and scientific computing. While they have similar functionalities, there are some key differences between them that make Jax particularly useful for machine learning applications. In this tutorial, we will explore some of the differences between Numpy and Jax and provide code snippets to illustrate these differences.

# Installation

Both Numpy and Jax can be installed using pip. To install Numpy, you can run the following command in your terminal:

``````pip install numpy
``````

To install Jax, you can run the following command:

``````pip install jax
``````

Note that Jax also requires the `jaxlib` library, which can be installed using the following command:

``````pip install jaxlib
``````

# Functionality

Let us take a look at how to write `NumPy` and `Jax` when performing simple and complex scientific computing and machine learning.

## Array creation

Numpy and Jax both provide functions for creating arrays. The simplest way to create an array in Numpy is to use the `array` function:

``````import numpy as np

# create a 1D array
npArrOne = np.array([1, 2, 3])
print(npArrOne)

# create a 2D array
npArrTwo = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
print(npArrTwo)
``````

In Jax, the corresponding function is `jnp.array`:

``````import jax.numpy as jnp

# create a 1D array
jxArrOne = jnp.array([1, 2, 3])
print(jxArrOne)

# create a 2D array
jxArrTwo = jnp.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
print(jxArrTwo)
``````

Note that the syntax is very similar in both libraries, but in Jax we import the numpy functions from the `jax` package rather than the `numpy` package.

## Array indexing

Both Numpy and Jax provide powerful indexing capabilities for arrays. The basic syntax is the same in both libraries:

``````# indexing in numpy
npArr = np.array([1, 2, 3])
print(npArr)
# output: 1

# indexing in jax
jxArr = jnp.array([1, 2, 3])
print(jxArr)
# output: 1
``````

However, Jax provides some additional indexing features that are particularly useful for machine learning. For example, Jax provides a function called `jnp.index_update` that allows you to update an element of an array by index:

``````# update an element in numpy
npArr = np.array([1, 2, 3])
npArr = 4
print(npArr)
# output: [4, 2, 3]

# update an element in jax
jxArr = jnp.array([1, 2, 3])
jxArr = jnp.index_update(b, 0, 4)
print(jxArr)
# output: [4, 2, 3]
``````

Note that in Jax, we cannot modify an array in-place, so we need to reassign the result of `jnp.index_update` to the original array.

One of the most powerful features of Numpy and Jax is their ability to broadcast arrays. Broadcasting allows you to perform operations on arrays with different shapes and sizes. Here is an example of broadcasting in Numpy:

``````# broadcasting in numpy
npArrOne = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
npArrTwo = np.array([10, 20])
print(npArrOne + npArrTwo)
# output: [[11, 22], [13, 24]]
``````

In Jax, broadcasting works in a similar way:

``````# broadcasting in jax
jxArrOne = jnp.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
jxArrTwo = jnp.array([10, 20])
print(jxArrOne + jxArrTwo)
# output: [[11, 22], [13, 24]]
``````

In the above example, Numpy and Jax are able to add the 2D array `npArrOne` and the 1D array `npArrTwo` by automatically broadcasting the dimensions of `npArrTwo` to match the dimensions of `npArrOne`.

For Jax, it provides some additional broadcasting features that are particularly useful for machine learning. For instance, Jax provides a function called `jnp.vmap` that allows you to apply a function to multiple inputs using broadcasting:

``````# vmap in Jax
return x + y

jxArrOne = jnp.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
jxArrTwo = jnp.array([[10, 20], [30, 40]])

print(jxArrThree)
# output: [[11, 22], [33, 44]]
``````

In the code snippet above, we define a function `add` that adds two arrays element-wise. We then use `jnp.vmap` to apply this function to two arrays `jxArrOne` and `jxArrTwo`, which have the same shape. The result is a new array `jxArrThree` that has the same shape as `jxArrOne` and `jxArrTwo`, where each element of `jxArrThree` is the sum of the corresponding elements of `jxArrOne` and `jxArrTwo`.

# Performance

One of the key advantages of Jax over Numpy is its ability to compile code using the XLA compiler. This allows Jax to run code on GPUs and TPUs, which can significantly improve performance for large-scale machine learning applications.

 NumPy JAX Hardware CPU CPU, GPU, TPU Execution Synchronously Asynchronously Parallel computation No Yes

In the example below, we show how Jax and NumPy can be used to accelerate a simple matrix multiplication:

NumPy:

``````# matrix multiplication in numpy
import numpy as np
import time

npArrOne = np.random.rand(1000, 1000)
npArrOne = np.random.rand(1000, 1000)

start = time.time()
npArrThree = np.dot(npArrOne, npArrOne)
end = time.time()

print("NumPy time:", end - start)
``````

Output:

``````NumPy time: 0.5427792072296143
``````

JAX:

``````# matrix multiplication in jax
import jax.numpy as jnp
from jax import jit

jxArrOne = jnp.random.rand(1000, 1000)
jxArrTwo = jnp.random.rand(1000, 1000)

@jit
def matmul(jxArrOne, jxArrTwo):
return jnp.dot(jxArrOne, jxArrTwo)

start = time.time()
jxArrThree = matmul(jxArrOne, jxArrOne)
end = time.time()

print("JAX time:", end - start)
``````

Output:

``````JAX time: 0.03486919403076172
``````

In the code snippets above, we generate two random matrices NumPy and Jax of size 1000 x 1000, and we use the `np.dot` function to perform matrix multiplication in Numpy, and the `jnp.dot` function to perform matrix multiplication in Jax. We also use the `@jit` decorator to compile the `matmul` function using the XLA compiler.

From the output of time given, you can see that Jax is significantly faster than NumPy in terms of performance.

# Conclusion

Summary table of the similarities and differences between NumPy and JAX

 Feature NumPy JAX Functionality Basic array operations, linear algebra, statistics, image processing, Fourier transform All of NumPy's functionality, plus automatic differentiation, just-in-time compilation, parallel execution, and stateful computations Performance Good for simple tasks Excellent for complex tasks Scalability Good for small to medium datasets Excellent for large datasets

So, we have explored some of the differences between Numpy and Jax, two powerful Python libraries that are widely used in numerical computing and scientific computing.

While they have similar functionalities, Jax provides some additional features that are particularly useful for machine learning applications, including powerful indexing and broadcasting capabilities, as well as the ability to run code on GPUs and TPUs using the XLA compiler, which makes it particularly useful for machine learning applications.

By understanding the strengths and weaknesses of each library, you can choose the one that best suits your needs, and maximize the performance and functionality of your scientific computing projects.

Good luck!